GARDENING

Vegetables, Fertilizers,

10 Foods That Shouldn't Be Reheated


When the food made at home does not run out, it is usually stored in the refrigerator and then reheated when the next meal time comes. But did you know that there are certain types of food that should not be reheated because they can be harmful to the body? Know the following types of foods that should not be heated:

1. Potato

Those who have replaced rice with potatoes, they will probably serve this food three or two times a day. If leftover lunch potatoes, for example, are not stored properly and then reheated for dinner, they can lead to poisoning. If potato dishes are allowed to cool to room temperature – especially if they are wrapped in aluminum foil, they can become a breeding ground for the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Reheating potatoes is not always effective at killing these bacteria. As a result, bacteria will enter the digestive tract and become toxic. The best way of consumption is of course to always cook fresh potatoes before eating and finish them immediately. But, if there are leftovers, don't wait for it to cool to store. Put it in the fridge while it's still warm enough. If it must be reheated, use a low heat and a frying pan – don't heat it in the microwave.

2. Chicken

Chicken meat contains more protein, than red meat. If reheated, this protein will break down and be difficult to digest, which can then cause an upset stomach. Try not to heat dishes from processed chicken over and over again. Leftover fried chicken can be cut into pieces for a salad mix or bread filling, no need to re-fried to eat again. If it must be heated, preferably on the stove and not in the microwave – so the heat spreads evenly and doesn't leave any bacteria that might develop when food cools to room temperature. Processed chicken must be cooked and heated at a minimum temperature of 74⁰C so that bacteria are killed, and all parts of the meat are cooked and hot evenly.

3. Spinach

This one vegetable is easy to get and the price is affordable. This is why processed spinach is one of the most consumed types of food in Indonesia. Spinach contains a lot of nitrate which if reheated will turn into nitrite which is carcinogenic and has the potential to cause cancer. If you are cooking spinach, measure the amount so that it can be used up in one serving. Spinach and other leafy vegetables are best cooked fresh before mealtime.

4. Rice

As a staple food in Indonesia, rice will almost certainly be on the table and is generally cooked once for two to three meals. Leftover rice is also often processed into fried rice. Is this actually safe for health?  The problem with rice is the same as with potatoes; more of a storage problem than reheating. Rice that is left at room temperature will grow spores which can cause diarrhea and vomiting. Heating rice will not kill the spores that have already multiplied in it. So, frying leftover rice is actually safe. Origin, the rice is not left in an open state when not eaten. It is highly recommended to store it in a closed container.

5. Eggs

Just like chicken, eggs are also rich in protein. If heated, the protein will break and break down. In addition, heated eggs can also be toxic and unfit for consumption. Leftover hard-boiled eggs can be chopped into salad mixes or sandwich fillings instead of reheating. 

6. Mushrooms

Like other leftovers, mushroom dishes should be refrigerated no later than two hours after processing time if they are not used up, and should be eaten the same day without reheating. The protein and nutritional content of mushrooms will break down if heated and can cause various digestive problems. So, it is best if cooked mushrooms are consumed immediately on the same day and try not to heat them.

7. Celery

Because it includes leafy vegetables, just like spinach, the nitrate content in celery will turn into nitrite when heated. If you put it in soup, try to remove the celery in it before the soup is heated. The best way to consume celery is fresh without cooking, such as for juice mixtures or cooking sprinkles. If used for a mixture of dishes, then the menu should be spent in one serving.

8. Red Beets

Although in Indonesia this vegetable is still rarely consumed, but not a few also process it into various types of food. Like spinach, red beets also contain nitrates which are rich in health benefits but can be very dangerous if heated. After being heated, the chemical composition in beets will change and become unfit to eat and harmful to the body. All parts of the beet will turn into nitrite and be toxic. Because red beets are one of the most dangerous vegetables when reheated, it is advisable to consume them fresh – for example in the form of juice. If it's cooked, then finish it immediately.

9. Cooking Oil

Ideally, vegetable oil or other oils (including corn, canola, soybean, and sunflower) used for frying should only be used once. Oils that are used repeatedly until they change color will become saturated fats and contain free radicals. Saturated fat can cause high cholesterol and clog blood vessels which eventually lead to heart disease and stroke. Use a maximum of three times the oil used for frying. Once it has changed color, throw it away.

10. Radish

Usually these vegetables are used as a mixture for soup or stuffing spring rolls and spring rolls. Again, these are vegetables with high nitrate counts. If heated, then the content will change and be harmful to the body. If dishes containing turnips are left at room temperature for more than two hours, then bacteria have started to grow in them. Because radishes contain a lot of nitrates, make sure not to let them cook for too long and don't reheat them. It is highly recommended to eat it fresh and clean.

These are 4 vegetables that are good to eat to help you lose weight


In fact, there are many vegetables that are good for consumption to help you lose weight, you know. Of course, these vegetables that are good for consumption have a lot of nutrients needed by the body. By routinely including vegetables that are well consumed in your diet, it is not impossible that your weight will fall faster. However, what is the best vegetables to eat to help you lose weight?

Let's look at 4 vegetables that are good for consumption to help lose weight.

1. Spinach

Spinach is one type of vegetable that contains high iron. So, don't be surprised if spinach is very suitable for consumption for those of you who are on a diet program. In addition, spinach is also low in calories and high in fiber. The content of vitamins A, C, and K in spinach can help maximize your weight loss process. Interestingly, regularly consuming spinach can also keep the skin healthy and glowing.

2. Kale

This green vegetable can help you lose weight. You can consume kale with various preparations, such as smoothies or mixed as a salad. This kale vegetable plays an important role in the body's detoxification process so that the weight loss process can be maximized. Not only that, but kale can also increase the body's metabolism and reduce hunger before time.

3. Pumpkin

Pumpkin is a type of vegetable that is good for consumption during a diet program. You can turn a pumpkin into soup, curry, or salad. Not only that, but you can also mix pumpkin with various other vegetables to meet daily nutritional needs. The nutritional content of pumpkin is quite complete, it can help you to control your weight.

4. Mushrooms

Mushrooms have many amazing benefits for the body. One of them is being able to control excess weight. The high protein content in mushrooms can improve the body's metabolism to make it faster. That way, the fat in the body will be burned faster so that the weight loss process can run more effectively.

Pakcoy Benefits for Health and How to Choose It


Pakcoy is a vegetable from China that has started worldwide. At first glance, pakcoy is similar to mustard greens, only the shape is smaller and shorter. In addition to its delicious taste, the benefits of pakcoy can also be felt by the body. Launching Medical News Today this vegetable is very rich in nutrients and also low in calories. It's perfect for a menu for Moms who are on a low-calorie diet. According to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) National Nutrition Data Data, 1 cup or the equivalent of 70 grams of fresh pakcoy contains about 9 calories.

Pakcoy also contains vitamins and minerals, including phosphorus, zinc, sodium, copper, manganese, selenium, niacin, folate, choline, beta-carotene, and vitamin K. Not surprisingly, Pakcoy ranks sixth in the Aggregate Nutrient Density Index (ANDI) for the fruit and vegetable category. The index assesses foods not only based on their vitamin and mineral content, but also their phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity. Kucifer vegetables, such as bok choy, are rich in glucosinolates. It is a sulfur-containing compound that can benefit human health in a variety of ways. Besides being suitable for dieting, the benefits of Pakcoy can also be felt by pregnant women and babies.

Difference between Pakcoy and Mustard

Often people can hardly tell the difference between mustard greens and pakcoy because of their almost identical physical resemblance. However, if you look closely, these two vegetables have some differences. One of the most distinguishing is in the trunk. Pakcoy stems are larger and tougher in texture, while mustard greens have longer stems and a softer texture.

On the leaves, pakcoy has thicker leaves and is shaped like a spoon which is often called a mustard spoon. Meanwhile, the green mustard leaves are thinner and elongated. The most distinguishing between pakcoy and mustard is the part of the stem, the stem of the mustard greens is longer while the pakcoy is shorter.

Benefits of Pakcoy for Health

Pakcoy is often believed to be able to cure certain diseases thanks to the nutritional content contained in pakcoy. Here are some kinds of health benefits that are obtained when consuming pakcoy:

Prevent Cancer

Pakcoy is believed to prevent cancer in the body. This is because in pakcoy there is an abundant phosphorus content. Phosphorus compounds can prevent mutations in DNA because phosphorus is a compound that forms DNA and RNA in the body.

In addition, pakcoy also has an antioxidant compound in it called selenium. Selenium stimulates the body to produce selenoprotein which functions to convert toxic substances in the body into neutral fluids.

Maintain Eye Health

Pakcoy is good for maintaining eye health because there is a high content of vitamin A in pakcoy. Vitamin A acts as a substance that converts light captured by the retina into electrical impulses to be transmitted through nerves to the brain.

In addition, pakcoy is also high in beta-carotene content in it. Beta-carotene is a provitamin A that acts as an eye guard so as not to get macular degeneration caused by the effects of free radicals.

In addition, the lutein content in pakcoy is also useful in protecting eye tissue from damage caused by sunlight.

Maintain Bone Health

Calcium is needed by the body to strengthen bones. Calcium is one of the substances needed by the body to form osteocalcin which is a non-collagenous chemical compound that plays a role in the process of bone hardening or bone mineralization and pakcoy is a vegetable that contains high calcium.

Pakcoy also contains vitamin K which plays a role in maintaining the availability or stability of calcium in the bones so that the bones do not experience erosion or bone loss.

Contains Antioxidants

Call it several kinds of antioxidants, such as selenium, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-carotene and vitamin A found in one vegetable, namely pakcoy. Pakcoy does contain various types of antioxidants and their benefits.

For example, lutein compounds that play a role in protecting the eyes from damage caused by the effects of free radicals and can also reduce cholesterol levels in the body.

In addition, other antioxidant compounds, namely selenium, which plays a role in converting toxic substances in the body into neutral and harmless fluids.

Good for Pregnant Women

Some of the nutritional content in pakcoy is very beneficial for pregnant women and their fetuses, such as folic acid, calcium and iron. The content of folic acid is needed by pregnant women for the development of nervous tissue in the fetus. Folic acid is also useful for the fetus to prevent defects in the fetal nervous system.

Meanwhile, calcium plays a role in the formation of bones and teeth in the fetus to make it more optimal and strong. In addition, the iron content also helps pregnant women not to lack blood, because iron is the main compound in the formation of red blood cells.

Pakcoy unwittingly turns out to have various kinds of antioxidant content that can protect the body from the bad effects of free radicals.

How to Choose Pakcoy

Pakcoy sold in the market has various grades and qualities, but there are several ways to choose a good quality pakcoy just by looking at it. Here are tips for choosing pakcoy with good quality:

  1. Choose pakcoy with leaves that have not withered or still look fresh.
  2. Choose baby pakcoy if you want to process it for children because baby pakcoy has a softer texture.
  3. Pay attention to pakcoy stems, do not choose stems that have spots.
  4. Do not choose pakcoy with perforated leaves.
  5. Do not choose pakcoy with yellow leaves.

The correct selection of pakcoy will get pakcoy with good quality and has a lot of nutritional content.

Get to know 7 vegetables that shouldn't be consumed every day


Vegetables are usually used as a mainstay of the diet because they are rich in nutrients but do not make weight gain. Although rich in nutrients and vitamins that the body needs, there are some vegetables that should not be consumed every day.

You see, certain vegetables can be harmful to our health if consumed every day! Curious what vegetables we need to avoid?

Let's find out the 7 vegetables below!

1. Corn

Corn is delicious in any dish! Not to mention the corn fills our stomachs, here. Unfortunately, corn is not good if you have to eat it every day. Corn has a very high carbohydrate content and is very difficult for our bodies to digest. Worse yet, there is a sugar content in corn which is quite high, making our blood sugar rise!

2. Potato

Just like corn, potatoes also have a high carbohydrate content. Not to mention if the potatoes we eat are not organic potatoes, because there can be a lot of pesticide residues in them and poison our bodies!

3. Tomato

Tomatoes that are not organic can also absorb pesticides and poison our bodies. In addition, eating too many tomatoes can also make our bodies become inflamed. As a result, we can feel problems in the joints and swelling of the body, you know!

4. Eggplant

Like tomatoes, eggplant can also poison our bodies by causing inflammation. In addition, eggplant also has high calories. Plus the characteristics of eggplant are like a sponge, so it's easier to absorb oil, fat, calories, and salt which makes our bodies even more imbalanced!

5. Paprika

Paprika is a complementary vegetable that we can find in almost every food. Unfortunately, peppers can actually make our bodies inflamed, like tomatoes and eggplants!

6. Radish

Indeed, turnips have very high vitamin C. However, turnips have no other nutrients than other vegetables. In fact, turnips can make our stomach problems, such as bloating. Consuming too much radish can also make our bodies severely dehydrated, you know!

7. Lettuce

Lettuce is really good to eat for a diet or as a salad. The problem is, that lettuce turns out to have lower nutrients than other vegetables. In other words, it's better we don't have to eat lettuce at all than just in vain into our bodies!

How to Choose and Tips for Consuming Pakcoy


Pakcoy or bokchoy is a plant that comes from the brassica or cabbage family which has the Latin name Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis. Pakcoy is also known as Chinese cabbage because it is often used in various Chinese dishes.

Pakcoy has different characteristics from some other vegetables. Pakcoy has thick stems and is pale white or greenish in color. On the leaves, pakcoy has leaves that are oval or oval and form a spiral and tight formation. Pakcoy plants can grow upright with a height of 15-20 cm.

Pakcoy Side Effects

Pakcoy in addition to having various kinds of nutritional content that provides health for the body, pakcoy also contains nutrients that can cause side effects on the body. Here are some kinds of side effects on the body:

Goitrogenic Plants

Pakcoy belongs to the brassica or cabbage family which is a type of plant that contains goitrogenic substances. Goitrogenic is an isothiocinate and thiosinate compound that can block the flow of thyroid iodide which if left too much can reduce iodine storage and cause goiter.

That is, consuming too much pakcoy can stop the production of thyroid hormone in the body and result in the appearance of goiter which is characterized by symptoms of brittle and thinning hair, dry skin and a slowed heart rate.

Causes of Kidney Stones

Green vegetables often contain very high oxalic acid, and pakcoy is no exception. Oxalic acid is a natural compound found in the body of every living creature, its presence is actually needed by the body but if it is excessive it can be the cause of kidney stone disease.

Excess oxalic acid will bind to calcium which is also excessive and will form insoluble and indigestible compounds in the form of solid objects such as stones that will settle in the kidneys and cause kidney stone disease and pakcoy is a vegetable that has both of these compounds.

Pesticide Risk In Pakcoy

The use of pesticides on pakcoy poses its own risks for consumers, especially if it is consumed continuously without washing it thoroughly. Pesticide use by farmers will leave residue on the leaves or stems of pakcoy.

This pesticide residue will pose a risk to health if it is consumed too much. In addition to the risk of residue on the outside, pakcoy also has a systemic pesticide risk, namely the absorption of pesticide liquid on the inside of the pakcoy.

The systemic risk is more dangerous for pakcoy because the pesticide liquid is absorbed and circulated throughout the pakcoy. To reduce this risk, it would be better if pakcoy farmers use organic pesticides made from natural ingredients such as papaya or orange leaves.

At the consumer level, this risk can be reduced by washing and soaking pakcoy in salt water to neutralize pesticide residues that are still attached. In addition, consumers also cook pakcoy until it is completely cooked to reduce the risk of pesticides.

Tips for Consuming Pakcoy

In processing pakcoy, there is no need for a special method and it also doesn't take a long time to cook it because it can eliminate the nutritional content in it.

Here are tips for consuming pakcoy:

Sauteed Pakcoy Mushroom Shrimp

  1. Prepare the pakcoy that will be used, try to use baby pakcoy for consumption by children and clean it with running water.
  2. Separate the pakcoy into sheets.
  3. Prepare other ingredients, such as cleaned shrimp, mushrooms, salt, sugar, shallots, garlic, bay leaves and galangal.
  4. Thinly slice the spices and mushrooms.
  5. Heat enough oil and add seasoning ingredients, such as garlic, shallots that have been cut into thin strips.
  6. Saute the spices until fragrant.
  7. Add galangal, lemongrass, cayenne pepper, salt, sugar, bay leaf and shrimp.
  8. Fry for a while and add a little water.
  9. Wait until the water boils and add the mushrooms.
  10. Then add the pakcoy and tomatoes.
  11. Stir well and cook for a while.
  12. Turn off the heat and stir-fry the Pakcoy mushroom prawns ready to be served.

Pakcoy mushroom shrimp stir-fry dishes are very delicious, healthy and interesting for children. In addition, the nutritional content of this food is quite complete with high protein from shrimp and other nutrients from pakcoy.

Healthy Vegetable Salad

  1. Prepare baby pakcoy which is not hard in texture.
  2. Also prepare other ingredients such as carrots, lettuce, cucumber, onions, and spinach.
  3. Cut the vegetables into small pieces, onions, and grated carrots.
  4. Also prepare the ingredients for the salad dressing such as mayonnaise, olive oil, and pepper.
  5. Mix the vegetable ingredients together in a bowl.
  6. Pour the mayonnaise, olive oil, and pepper over the vegetable ingredients.
  7. Place in the fridge for about 20 minutes to make it fresher.
  8. After 20 minutes the vegetable salad is ready to be enjoyed.
In conclusion, processing pakcoy must be adjusted to its designation so that the nutritional content of pakcoy is obtained optimally.

8 Benefits of Eating Pakcoy Vegetables for Health


Besides being crunchy and delicious, pakcoy is rich in fiber, vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients that make it a super healthy vegetable when consumed. Like other dark green leafy vegetables, pakcoy is rich in antioxidants and other compounds that help promote better health.

One of the benefits of eating pakcoy vegetables is that it can help in preventing cancer. Why so? Because pakcoy contains cancer-fighting compounds, such as vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, folate, and selenium.

Vitamins C, E, and beta-carotene are powerful antioxidants that can help prevent cell damage from free radicals, and lower the risk of cancer. Selenium can help slow the rate of tumor growth. Want to know more about the health benefits of pakcoy vegetables, read more here!

1

. Prevent cancer

Spoon mustard contains flavonoids and isothiocynate which are believed to prevent cancer. These active compounds can protect body cells from free radicals and carcinogenic substances that trigger cancer. Several types of cancer such as colorectal, postat, lung, and breast cancer can be prevented by regularly consuming healthy foods on this one.

2. Lowering high blood pressure

Hypertension or high blood pressure is a disease that often affects many people. This disease can be prevented or treated by consuming nutritious foods, especially foods with high calcium and potassium content. Pakcoy is a type of green vegetable that is rich in calcium and potassium. In addition, vitamin B6 and folic acid in it can also reduce harmful compounds that cause damage to blood vessels and heart muscle.

3. Prevents the risk of heart disease

The low calorie and cholesterol content makes this vegetable an effort to prevent the dangerous risk of heart disease. This mustard meat also contains folic acid, potassium, vitamin C and vitamin B6 which are good for maintaining heart health. From research that has been done, bok choy has the ability to prevent the production of homocysteine. If there are too many homocysteine, it can cause damaged blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease.

4. Maintain eye health

Pakcoy also has benefits for maintaining eye health and preventing eye health problems such as dry eyes, macular degeneration, and cataracts. The content of vitamin A and beta carotene in it which makes this vegetable good for eye health.

5. Strengthens bones

This spoon mustard contains iron, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, and vitamins that can maintain healthy bones and teeth. This vegetable is a source of vegetable calcium that can be an alternative for those of you who are allergic to milk. 6. Maintain digestive health Bok choy mustard has a high fiber content. This is what makes this food useful for maintaining digestive tract health. This vegetable is also safe for people with IBS or Crohn's disease to consume.

7. Increase endurance

The complete nutritional content makes this vegetable suitable for daily consumption. The various vitamins and minerals present in spoon mustard are believed to increase the body's resistance and prevent infection.

8. Eliminate wrinkles on the skin

Vitamin C contained in this vegetable is also useful for beauty, especially in delaying premature aging which is marked by the appearance of fine wrinkles on the face. The solution to overcome this turns out to be by consuming spoon mustard, because this mustard has vitamins and antioxidants that can counteract free radicals and trigger collagen to disguise wrinkles.

Morphological Characteristics of Pakcoy Plants


Pakcoy or bok choy is a vegetable that is widely consumed by the community. This vegetable does not come from Indonesia, but its popularity in the country is quite high. Pakcoy is also known by the name mustard spoon or mustard meat. The shape of the leaves does resemble a spoon with a bulging base. Similar to other types of green vegetables, bok choy is widely cultivated by farmers because it is easy and the consumers are quite high.

Pakcoy Classification

This mustard plant has morphological characteristics similar to cabbage and cabbage. The body of this plant is erect with a compact. The petiole is white with a fresh green leaf color. The stalk is wide and sturdy. When consumed, this vegetable has a crunchy texture from the stalk, and a fresh and slightly bitter taste. The classification of this plant as follows:

  • Kingdom: Plantae
  • Division: Spermatophyta
  • Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Order: Rhoeadales
  • Family: Brassicaceae
  • Genus: Brassica
  • Species: Brassica rapa

Morphological Characteristics of the Pakcoy Sawi spoon plant has several characteristics that can be easily recognized. In the book Bertanam Petsai and Sawi by Rukmana (1994), the characteristics of this mustard are as follows:

1. Root

The roots of bok choy are included in the taproot category with the shape of the root branches spreading in all directions. These roots can go into the soil to a depth of 30 to 40 cm. Similar to other plants, the root of the pakcoy vegetable also functions to absorb water and nutrients in the soil, and strengthens the plant so that it can stand upright.

2. Trunk

The stem of this mustard plant is short and has segments. The stem is a pseudo-stem type with a light green color. The function of the stem of this plant is to form and support the leaves.

3. Leaves

Leaves are the main part that humans use from this plant. Pakcoy vegetable leaves have an obal shape with a dark green color. The leaves of this plant are attached to the stem with white to light green petioles. The petiole is fat and fleshy, if you eat the stalk, bok choy tastes crunchy and juicy.

4. Flowers

The flowers of this plant grow elongated and branched a lot. Flowers will appear when the plant is very old. The mustard flower has three buds consisting of four leaf petals, four leaf crowns, four stamens, and one white and two hollow. This flower is yellow. If we come to the Pakcoy cultivation area, we may rarely find the flowers of this plant because farmers will harvest these vegetables before the flowers come out.

5. Fruits and Seeds

The fruit of this spoon-shaped green mustard is a pod with an elongated and hollow shape. In one fruit or pod there are 2 to seeds. The shape of the seeds of this plant is small round with brown or blackish brown color with a shiny smooth surface, and so hard.

Contents of Pakcoy

Similar to green vegetables in general, bok choy also contains several nutrients and vitamins. Pakcoy vitamins that are beneficial for the body include vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin K, vitamin B6, folic acid, antioxidants, beta-carotene, and calcium.

  • 1 gram protein
  • Carbohydrates 1.5 grams
  • 0.7 gram fiber
  • Potassium 5%
  • Vitamin A 62%
  • Vitamin C 52%
  • Vitamin B6 5%
  • Calcium 7%
  • Magnesium 3%
  • Iron 3%

From the content of pakcoy, it is not surprising that this one vegetable is in the position of six categories of solid fruits and vegetables that contain the version of the Aggregate Nutrient Density Index (ANDI). Consumption of these green vegetables besides being delicious can also help meet your body's daily nutritional needs.

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